Fractals are typically self-similar patterns, whereby self-similar means they are ‘the same from near as from far’. Fractals may be exactly the same at every scale, or they may be nearly the same at different scales. The definition of fractal goes beyond self-similarity per se to exclude trivial self-similarity and include the idea of a detailed pattern repeating itself. As mathematical equations, fractals are usually nowhere differentiable, which means that they cannot be measured in traditional ways. (Source)

Often associated with fractals are L-Systems. Developed in 1968 by Aristid Lindenmayer, an L-system or Lindenmayer system is a parallel rewriting system, namely a variant of a formal grammar, most famously used to model the growth processes of plant development. An L-system consists of an alphabet of symbols that can be used to make strings, a collection of production rules which expand each symbol into some larger string of symbols, an initial ‘axiom’ string…

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